A form of forest humus occurring in acidic situations where organic matter forms a dark surface mat, rather than being intimately mixed with the mineral matter. Typical of heaths and coniferous forests.
Adapted from: English Heritage (2004) Geoarchaeology: Using earth sciences to understand the archaeological record. UK: English Heritage Publishing.
and, French, C.(2003) Geoarchaeology in Action: Studies in soil micromorphology and landscape evolution. London: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-27310-2.